Córdoba Province - Palenciana

PALENCIANA

The distinct geographical setting of of Palenciana, set almost precisely on the border between the provinces of Córdoba and Málaga, means that the village is surrounded by a curious mixture of almond trees and the plains of the famous Llanos de Antequera. It has around 1,500 inhabitants.

HISTORY

Ceramics found on surrounding sites indicate human presence in the area as early as the Bronze Age. Roman remains have also been found in the vicinity of Cerro de los Toros, south of the road that connects Palenciana with  El Tejar and, most importantly, in Cerro del Pozuelo, where fragments of urns and gravestones have been found.

During the Middle Ages, Palenciana was part of Benamejí. During the Muslim era it belonged to the Cora de Rayya (Málaga) and, after the fall of the Caliphate, to the Kingdom of the Banu Ziri of Granada, despite its having been initially incorporated by Fernando III into the Christian domain. It was laterdonated by Alfonso X to the Military Order of Santiago and was within the border of Granada, so was affected by the numerous military and civic changes in the city until it conquered Antequera in 1410.

Throughout these many ownerships, Palenciana remained indissolubly united to Benamejí; it is only since the sixteenth century that the village has existed as its own entity. As a result of the real resolution to dismember Benamejí's donation from the Military Order of Santiago, in 1547Juan de León was sent to the area to carry out an evaluation of the term that would allow the compensation to be paid.

In 1547 the current town was not yet built, although some sources mention a 'cortijo' in the Palenciana area,possibly located on the site of the current municipality. It was after Diego de Bernuy purchased the Señorío of Benamejí that houses were built around the primitive farmhouse, following the model of Benamejí. Palenciana achieved full segregation from Benamejí in 1834, ending the rivalry that the co-dependency had created between the two populations.

THINGS TO SEE

Ermita de San Lucas
The chapel was built in the late 1980s by popular demand, having been promoted by José Espadas. The arched porches that surround the chapel, in particular, attract attention, and are undoubtedly inspired by those that characterise many chapels in the north of the province of Córdoba. The chapel is located on Travesia Calle Rio.

Parroquia de San Miguel
The church was already formed during the seventeenth century and registered in 1714, but although the original temple was enlarged during that same year, it was necessary to build a new church in 1774, inaugurated by the Lord and V Marqués de Benamejí, Juan Bautista Bernuy Fernández de Henestrosa. The church in its present form is situated on Calle Arroyo.

Casas Del Siglo XIX en La Plaza del Carmen
Throughout the streets of Palenciana, visitors will see the traditional architecture of the village in its houses, which mainly date to the nineteenth century. Two houses (No.6 and No.12) particularly stand out in the central square known as Nuestra Señora del Carmen, which forms a small urban complex together with the facade of the Parroquia de San Miguel.

THINGS TO SEE OUTSIDE THE VILLAGE

Fuente de los Ciélagos
The water source of Ciélagos is famous for its mineral-medicinal waters. It is said to contain carbonic acid and be good for curing herpes. The water is used for domestic purposes in local farmhouses (washing, swimming pool, etc.) and for watering gardens, orchards and vegetables. The source is located about 2 km southeast of the town.

Cerro de los Toros
Only accounts provided by Bernier allow us to know of the existence, in the Cerro de los Toros, of burnished ceramics that correspond to the Bronze Age. An initial survey carried out some years ago by a team from the University of Córdoba showed thatmost of the ceramics that appear on the surface date more specifically to the Precolonial Final Bronze Age. The lack of pottery indicates the possible abandonment of this habitat during the Orientalizing period, perhaps due to a process of human concentration in the nearby town of El Hacho, in Benamejí.

HANDICRAFTS

Forgery, a traditional craft in Palenciana, is still practised by residents today.

GASTRONOMY

Palenciana, being a relatively new municipality, does not benefit from the rich and varied cuisine which can be found in older nearby towns such as Benamejí and Cuevas Bajas. However visitors can still enjoy some exquisite dishes, made using local ingredients, such as porracrúa (similar to salmorejo but includes a fried green pepper in the recipe), roña (a cured sausage made from meat stew and served with a soup), cocido (pork stew) and porra de espárragos (asparagus soup). Sweet treats include tortilla de Navidad (sweet pastry typically made for Christmas), borrachuelo, rosquillos and hornazos.

FESTIVALS

Cabalgata Reyes Magos
Three Kings procession celebrated on the evening of 5 January.

Carnaval
Celebrated in February.

Semana Santa
Holy Week (dates vary eachyear).

Día de San Marcos
Celebrated the 25 April.

Romería de San Isidro
Celebrated the 15 May.

Feria del Carmen
Celebrated the 14-17 August.

NEARBY PLACES      

The neighbouring villages to Palenciana are Benamejí, El Tejar and EncinasReales.

 

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