According to historian Menendez Pidal, Huércal-Overa takes its name from the repopulation of two different villages at the end of the fifteenth century. The former presence of Phoenicians and Greeks in search of minerals in the area, as well as Carthaginians and Romans, has been attested to by historians. On the summit of Cabezo de la Jara is the cave of La Cueva de los Escipiones, named after a Roman General who is thought to have visited the spot with his army. He died locked in a tower after being defeated by the Carthaginian General Asdrubal. The Roman Emperor Augustus included Huércal-Overa, Purchena and Vélez-Rubio in the Roman province of Tarraconense.
It is said the origin of Huércal-Overa can be pinpointed to the Moorish period, with two castles forming, together with other fortresses, a secure defense for this part of the Kingdom of Granada. After the Christian conquest, it was annexed and donated to the town of Lorca for services rendered in the year 1488.
After the Moorish uprising from 1568-1570 and the expulsion of the Moors, Christian repopulation of the area started between 1572 and 1573, with Overa annexed to Huércal. In the year 1668, it achieved total independence from Lorca under its present name, by means of a purchase document made to the Royal Exchequer.