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Cádiz province

Cádiz province

Part of the Bahía de Cádiz Natural Park, this 170ha protected area of saltmarsh is interesting for its rich birdlife. Sancti Petri was a fishing village but is now largely abandoned, overtaken in importance in its new incarnation, the modern tourist complex of Nuevo Sancti Petri. This area around the saltmarsh is somewhat built up, with golf courses and hotels to the south.

Andalucia is filled with fascinating cultural events throughout the year. Whilst many of these festivals take place on the date indicated each year, others move slightly in relation to the day of the week or the religious calendar or occasionally weather.

These are small walls in the intertidal zone close to the beach at Rota, which cover 110ha and are exposed at low tide. They have been used for collecting shellfish and fish since Roman times and continued to be in use until the 1950s.

The Duna de Bolonia, covering around 131m², is protected for its geological interest. It is located at the village of Bolonia, on the headland of Punta Camarinal, exposed to the ferocious easterly levante winds. At its highest point, the dune measures around 30m.

Situated within the Bahía de Cadiz Natural Park near San Fernando is this sandy punta (headland) of 74.5ha, created by the sea, wind and sedimentation processes at work in the Guadalete river estuary. On and around the spit are a similar flora and fauna to that found elsewhere in the park. Historically, the headland was of military-strategic importance and there are still remains of the Sancti-Petri castle.

The Tómbola de Trafalgar is a site of geological interest, with a small island joined to the mainland by a sandy tombolo, or bank of sand. The island is called the Cabo de Trafalgar, and its name became a household word after the famous 1805 Battle of Trafalgar.

This is the most important reserve of the lagunas (lagoons) close to the Bahía de Cádiz. Like the other lakes in the area (the Complejo Endorreico de Chiclana, Complejo Endorreico de Espera, Complejo Endorreico de Puerto Real, Complejo Endorreico de El Puerto de Santa María and Las Lagunas de Las Canteras y El Tejón), the freshwater Laguna de Medina is an important site for overwintering waterfowl and as a breeding ground for birds such as the white-headed duck and purple gallinule.

The Peñón de Zaframagón is an impressive 600m-high limestone outcrop or crag (peñón) with sheer cliffs located to the north of the Sierra de Lijar close to the Seville/Cadiz provincial border. There are many natural springs in the 448ha reserve. Apart from its geological importance, the reserve is home to one of Andalucía's most significant colonies of Griffon vultures.

Inland near El Puerto de Santa María are a series of three freshwater lakes: Salada, Chica and Juncosa. Salada is the largest, covering an area of 36ha. They are fed mainly by rainwater, which means that in times of drought they can dry out and leave a bed of crusted salt, although the Salada is the least likely to dry out completely. The whole reserve (including a core area of 63ha of the lakes) covers an area of 291ha.