Tariq´s Invasion - Moorish Invasion of Iberia - 8th Century
In Toledo, where the gorge of the river Tagus opens out onto the plane, there are ruins called the Baths of La Cava. According to legend, it was here that Rodrigo, the last Visigothic King in Spain, seduced fair Florinda as she bathed in the river. ‘Florinda La Cava' was the daughter of Count Julian, Rodrigo's Governor in North Africa, and to avenge the dishonoring of his daughter, Julian joined with Muslim forces to promote the Islamic invasion of Iberia.
Julian approached Tariq ibn Ziyad, the Moorish commandant at Tangier in the name of Musa, the Governor of Ifriqiya (North Africa). Following their agreed plans, Julian himself lead a small party over the straits in coasting boats and went underground to await their leader. Tariq joined the last contingent, landing at Gibraltar and seizing Algeciras.
In fact, a year earlier in 710, Musa had launched an initial reconnaissance, sending Tarif ibn Malik with 400 infantry and 100 horsemen from Tangier over to Tarifa (Tarif is hence the city's namesake) in four ships. They pushed as far as Algeciras, laying hands on money and bedding captive women; Tariq's later invasion would push their mission further North.
Hearing that Rodrigo was on his way south with an army of 100.000, Tariq requested reinforcements from Musa. He received 7,000 men, giving him a total of just 12.000. Nonetheless, Tariq met Rodrigo on the banks of a river, which has been tentatively identified as the Guadalete, and vanquished him in the Battle of Guadalete, which lasted from morning to nightfall. Rodrigo disappeared during the fight, most probably killed, though his body was never found.
Next, Tariq routed the remains of Rodrigo's army at Ecija, and took Julian's advice to march on Toledo, where the city gates were simply opened up to him. He entrusted the siege of Cordoba to his lieutenant Moghit and dispatched different military detachments for Elviria, Malaga and Murcia.
Tariq's rapid conquering force was overtaken by that of Musa, who picked up numerous successes, carrying on to Zaragosa, throughout the Ebro and even into France.
These combined military forces conquered Iberia very quickly, and following Rodrigo's death there was no counter movement by the Visigothic nobility, nor Wanda's prince sons or the people, to push them back. Perhaps the Visigoths saw Tariq's berber tribesman as involuntary allies who were going to rid them of fiscal and clerical tyranny and, once they were gorged with booty, turn their horses round and head back to North Africa. Indeed, almost everybody helped them on their way, like a liberating army, guiding them and opening city gates.
All of Iberia, except Galicia and Asturias, was now in Muslim hands. Musa was not even certain he could retain control over so vast a country with so few resources. He made Seville, rather than Toledo, his base as it would be easier to evacuate.
Musa then went to Damascus to give his account of the opportune conquest to the Caliph, and laid at his feet an immense booty and thousands of captives.