by Saskia Mier
Adamuz can be found found at the foot of Sierra Morena, next to the Camino de la Plata. The town has about 4,200 inhabitants.
The first signs of human population within the Adamuz area were found in caves with archaeological sites, in Cueva del Cañaveralejo, including human remains and ceramics belonging to the end of the fifth millennium BC. During the period of the Roman Hispania, Adamuz belonged to the Sacilis Marcillus area, currently Alcurrucen, and Pedro Abad, as can be deduced by Roman inscriptions appearing there.
The name Adamuz or Alamuz was given to the settlement during the Arab dominion, which would have consisted of an inn for travellers to rest,on the road from Córdoba to Toledo, called Camino Real de la Plata. From 1260, Adamuz belonged to the Córdoba jurisdiction,whose Council appointed Mayors and Officers. Some of the noblemen and wealthy residents of Castile intended to usurp the Dominion of Adamuz, and proof of this is shown in the Commission conferred, in 1469, by King Enrique IV of Castile to the Master of Santiago and the Bishop of Sigüenza. This was to ensure that the Count of Cabra, Martín Alonso de Sotomayor and Fernán Pérez, as well as the city of Córdoba, reached agreement to return several forts, one of them being Adamuz.
Ninety-seven years later, in 1566, King Felipe II sold Adamuz to Don Luis Méndez de Haroy Sotomayor, Commander Mayor of Alcañiz, and since then it has belonged to theMarquises of El Carpio. The history of Adamuz would be incomplete if we were not to mention theConvent of San Francisco del Monte, founded by Don Martín Fernández de Andujar, confirmed from Avignon (France) by Clement VII at the request of the King and Queen, Don Enrique and Doña Catalina, dated 6 May 6 1394. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries reformationswere carried out by Don Luis Méndez de Sotomayor.
THINGS TO SEE
Casa Señorial de los Lara-Ayllon (Pósito Municipal)
The mansion was built in the mid-seventeenth century, at the most important moment of Adamuz's period as an enclave of obligatory passage on the Camino Real de la Plata, from Córdoba to Toledo. In the middle of the eighteenth century, Don Marcos de Lara Ayllón, became Mayor of Córdoba. During his stay in Adamuz, Felipe IV spent the night in this mansion. Over the years, it has undergone several transformations, and during the twentieth century it was used as a Hospice. It currently houses the Interpretation Centre, Tourism Office and Municipal Library. Located on Calle Constitución.
The tower clock was built in 1566 by Don Luis Méndez de Haro, Marquis of Carpio. The first of the square bases is made of stone, with a grist stone tablet written in Latin which explains who ordered it to be built and on what date. The tower that can be seen today is not the original, as that disappeared almost entirely in the Civil War. The current one is a restoration by the architect Sánchez Puch. Located in Plaza de la Constitución.
Iglesia de San Andrés Apostol
The thirteenth century church, similar to the Córdoba churches of the Re-conquest, was built in 1260. Its current remains are from the late fourteenth century; however, various reformations were carried out throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries by Hernán Ruiz. Located on Calle San Andrés.
Pozo de Santiago
A public well dating from the eighteenth century that was part of the monumental Ermita de la Soledad, which has since disappeared. It was an obligatory restingstop for travellers along the Camino Real de la Plata. Since its construction, it has been a stop for walkers and a water source for residents of the surrounding area. Located on Calle de la Soledad.
Ermita de San Pío V
The chapel was part of the only great manor house still conserved in the town, popularly called Casa de los Riberas. Some parts of the house are still well preserved and the rest have been modified. Located on Calle Mesones.
THINGS TO SEE OUTSIDE THE VILLAGE
Pilar del Mesón del Obispo
The former medieval trough belonging to the now-disappeared Mesón del Obispo, was constructed in 1575, according to documents which demonstrate that its existence goes back to the Medieval or Roman era. Located on the Camino Real de la Plata.
The medieval trough is a structure that was used for water supply, both for human and for animal use. Although it is not known with certainty when it was built, it has been constructed on an existing infrastructure of Roman origin. This civil work, although it is still being studied and identified, can be dated to around the Middle Ages. Located on the Camino de la Dehesa Vieja.
The building that we see todaywas built in 1864 under the auspices of the Mayor's Office of Don Juan Rodríguez Tovar.It preserves two differentiated structures, a stone building that houses the water tank and a pillar. Located east of Adamuz, in the vicinity of Arrollo del Caño.
Ermita de Nuestra Señora del Sol o del Cerro
The date of construction of the chapel is unknown; however, the Brotherhood was confirmed in 1630, by Bishop Cristobal de Lobera y Porres. It suffered damage during the Civil War, and in 1951it was completely rebuilt by Regiones Devastadas. Located about eight kilometres from Adamuz.
The Sierra Morena is an idyllic location for walkers, with routes to explore the Ruta del Agua and, of course, the Camino de la Plata. This road runs historically as a backbone to all of Andalucía, and is a strategic point at the Andalucian level as an area of passage between Castile and the Guadalquivir Valley. The route was established from Toledo to Córdoba and Seville, and was originally used as a commercial trade route for tin and later gold, exploited by the Romans.
San Francisco del Monte
The ruins of the Monastery of San Francisco del Monte are located about 15 kilometreswest of Adamuz. The Monastery was founded in 1385 by, Don Matías Fernández de Andújar, close to the site of the old Mozarabic Monastery of San Zoilo Armilatense, whose remains were used in the construction of the Convent of San Francisco del Monte. It is a place of great scenic beauty and ideal for meditation.
Monte de la Sierrezuela
The Monte de la Sierrezuela consists of 584 hectares owned by the Junta de Andalucía and the Department of the Environment. The area is extremely rich in flora and fauna.
Peñón del Jituero (Peñón del Águila)
The Rock of Jituero is a unique place to explore with convenient access, parking for vehicles and a camping area. It is very much a favoured place among climbers for its perfect visual identification, south-west orientation (which allows climbing in the best conditions even during the most adverse months), the existence of 24 tracks professionally equipped with different levels of difficulty and two fixed points for rappel. Located at Km. 7.1 on the CO-412.
When visiting Adamuz, give some of their local favoured dishes a try such as coña (a name given to the cold tomato and garlic soup, salmorejo cordobés, served with cod and chips), migas (fried bread usually served with pork and eaten with sliced oranges or chocolate) and lechón frito (fried pork accompanied by white wine). Sweet treats include pestiños and perigallos (pastries).
Cabalgata Reyes Magos
Three Kings procession celebrated on the evening of 5 January.
Celebrated 1 and 2 February.
Celebrated in February.
Oil festival celebrated on 27 February.
Celebrated on Easter Saturday.
Fiestas de la Virgen del Sol o Feria de Abril
Celebrated the third Sunday of April.
Verbena del Carmen
Celebrated the weekend nearest to the 17 July.
Verbena de Santiago
Celebrated the weekend nearest to the 25 July.
Virgen de Agosto
Celebrated on 15 August.
Romería del Cerro
Celebrated the Sunday nearest to the 8 September.
Fiesta de San Andrés (Patrón de Adamuz)
Celebrated on 13 November.