Previously named Castilleja (from Castilla - Castle) up until the end of the 18th century, it later became known as Castillejar de los Rios and is now simply known as Castillejar.
Since ancient times, Castillejar, with its land base in the Guadalquivir valley has been a strategic point on the important trading route linking the Almeria and Murcia coastlines. Its natural position between the Barbatas and Guardal rivers has played a great part in its own historic and cultural evolution, making it a natural stronghold along this important commercial gateway.
The village is steeped in a deep historical past, like all the other villages in this region, going back many centuries. El Conde (Count) de Lerín and el Duque (Duke) de Alba were both involved in the overthrow of the Moors and the then there was the ecclesiastic dependence under the Archbishop of Toledo.
The upper part of the village in particular, still shows many traces of the historic roots of this delightful village. The past lives on within the little narrow streets and the beautifully kept, whitewashed houses.