The Antequera Dolmen sITE - Dólmenes de Antequera - Conjunto Arqueológico
Menga, Viera and El Romeral Dolmens
by Chris Chaplow
Just outside Antequera you can visit three 5000-year-old dolmens: Menga Dolmen (the largest in Europe) and Viera Dolmen, which are both located just outside the town, while El Romeral Dolmen is a few km away. These three prehistoric burial chambers represent some of the largest and most complete megalithic structures in Europe.
In 2016 the dolmens, along with two mountains closely connected to the dolmen complex, were declared UNESCO World Heritage. The Antequera Dolmens are the seventh WH site in Andalucia.
The Menga Dolmen is famous for its significant geographical location - on the summer solstice, 21 June, the morning sun shines over the peak of the Peña de los Enamorados and straight along the dolmen's entrance corridor. This very exact positioning would have held mystical importance for the prehistoric tribes who built the dolmen thousands of years ago.
The Antequera Dolmens Site, inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list on 15 July 2016, includes the mountains of El Torcal de Antequera and Peña de los Enamorados (towards which the dolmens face). The dolmens are described as "outstanding examples of megalithic architecture and... amongst the most recognized and quoted in the world." Read about the nomination on our blog and the inclusion on our blog.
Dolmens and Antequera
The dolmens were built by farmers who lived in the fertile Guadalhorce valley during the Neolithic period and Copper Age from 5000 to 2200BC. The closest Neolithic settlement to the dolmens is Cerro de Marimacho, the small hill 200m to the east, from where the stones would have been transported; Neolithic cave settlements also existed at El Torcal and Sierra de Molina. It would have taken the combined resources of many settlements to quarry and transport the stones, and construct these enormous burial sites.
The Menga and Viera dolmens were probably built between 3500 and 3000BC, while El Romeral was constructed later - in about 2500BC. Considering the structures are at least 5000 years old, they are in remarkably good condition.
|Dolmen stones of Antequera|
Menga Dolmen in the largest in Europe at nearly 30m long. The largest upright stone weighs 180 tonnes. By way of comparison, the heaviest stone at Stonehenge, in Wiltshire in the UK, weighs 40 tonnes.
The Menga Dolmen tomb comprises three different sections. The first is an open corridor or atrium porch section that would have been partially or completely unroofed, leading to a passage or corridor section of four stones. These oversized entrance 'capstones' have become the iconic image of the Menga Dolmen. This passage leads to the large oval-shaped funerary chamber.
This dolmen was built using the 'orthostatic technique', which means constructing a wall from 'planting' large upright stones called orthostats and laying across horizontal capstones to form a roof. It is 27.5m long, while the height gradually increases from 2.7m at the entrance to 3.5m at the far end. The widest point is 6m towards the back, with a floor shaft 1.5m in diameter and 19.5m deep. The shaft is aligned with three pillars that support four enormous 250-tonne roof stones.
Each side is made of 12 upright stones and one stone closing the far end. The roof is made of five stones; a sixth that was placed over the entrance is missing. The tomb is covered by a 50m-diameter tumulus of stones and soil.
The alignment of the passage is 045 degrees north-east, which is the sunrise during the summer solstice. This is unusual as 95% of dolmens align to the south-east. Aditioinally it aligns to the direction of Peña de los Enamorados; this is unique in continental Europe for a dolmen to align to a natural landmark. A small number of visitors can witness this event each year by prior reservation.
Menga the Leper
According to Javier de Rojos, writing in 1879, legend has it that an ill-fated woman, the widow of a promiscuous nobleman, arrived in the town in the 16th century after the death of her husband. She was suffering from leprosy, and took refuge in the dolmen, where she lived on the charity of travellers and locals. Hence the name of the dolmen.
|Viera Dolmen, Antequera|
The Viera Dolmen tomb comprises two different sections. The first is an open corridor including a 'door' structure, and the second is a 21m-long passage section. At the back is a small quadrangular chamber (1.6m wide and 2m high) which is accessed through a small opening cut into the stone. The hole in the rearmost capstone of the chamber was made by tomb raiders and is not part of the structure. The corridor is 1.3m wide and the chamber is 1.6m wide.
The structure was made of 16 upright stones on each side, of which three in the entrance section are missing. Five roof slabs are still in place; originally there would have been three or four more. Try to imagine the initial 'open' corridor section being closed - it has lost the capstones. The masonry wall construction in the open corridor is modern and protects the passage from falling tumulus material. The stones are covered in a carefully constructed 50m-diameter tumulus which has not been washed away over the years, unlike so many others in the Iberian Peninsula. The passage faces east, actually 096 deg following the standard pattern of Iberian megaliths.
Cerro Marimacho is a small hill 200m to the east of the Menga and Viera tombs. It has gentle slopes and is close to a stream known as La Villa. Due to its proximity to the dolmens, the hill has always attracted speculation is that it could contain a fourth dolmen. During the construction of the ring road, excavation carried out discovered 'pits' with materials such as undecorated pottery and flints. No comprehensive site excavation has ever been carried out.
|El Romeral Dolmen|
El Romeral Dolmen
The Tholos of El Romeral is a typical false cupola tomb. It has a corridor with masonry walls and a flat roof, of which 11 large stone slabs remain. The current corridor is 26m long, 1.5m wide, and 1.95m high. At the end of the corridor are two initial orthostats (vertical stones) followed by two closer together, to create the impression of a funnel leading into the 5.2m diameter chamber at the end. This chamber is also constructed from masonry with slightly vaulted walls with a false dome crowned with a 3.75m-high stone slab. This is one of the best examples of a false dome in the Iberian peninsular. At the rear of the chamber is a 10-deg centre offset opening into a small passage leading into a smaller scale 2.34m-diameter chamber. In the chamber you will see a 20cm slab of limestone whose purpose is unknown; there is no evidence it was for human sacrifice.
The stones are covered with a 68m-diameter tumulus, topped by a circle of trees. The passage faces south-west at 199 deg, which is very unusual in Iberia, and points to the peak of the Comorroro de las Siete Mesas on the El Torcal de Antequera mountain range
Standing in the chamber, as your eyes grow accustomed to the darkness, look to the wall to the right of the smaller chamber opening. You can see the 'projection' of the light from the entrance focused by the long corridor. If a visitor enters you can see their outline. During the afternoon around the winter solstice the sun shines directly on this back wall.
|El Caminante (the Traveller), the future museum (which has now been reduced in height, as stipulated by UNESCO), almost obscuring Peña de los Enamorados (Lovers' Leap Rock).|
The museum has now had the upper storey removed and the building works are complete. The museum is being fitted out and will open to visitors in Devcember 2021.
At the visitors centre you can pick up a leaflet of the site, watch a film, look at some plans of the dolmens' layouts, buy some books, and ask the staff any questions.
The first part of the route is the El Caminante Observatory, an open space 'watched over' by the bronze sculpture 'El Caminante' (the Traveller) by Miguel Garcia.
The Solar Plaza is located on the path to the Dolmens. Aligned with the access to the Viera Dolmen, its circular perimeter wall indicates the profile of the horizon and the location of sunrise on different dates. In the centre is a sundial. On the western side of the plaza is the memorial of the dolmens, a centenarian olive tree which stood in the front entrance of the Menga Dolmen for many years.
From here move on to the Tumulti field, visiting the Viera Dolmen and the Menga Dolmen. If you have time it is worth making your way to the El Romeral site, 4km away.
Discovery of Menga Dolmen in the 19th Century
Although earlier references to the 'caves' in Antequera exist, the first recorded archaeological study was published in 1847 by Rafael de Mitjana, Málaga municipal architect, entitled "Memoria sobre el templo druida hallado en las cercanias de la ciudad de Antequera" (Report on the druid temple found near Antequera).
After his five-year dig, from 1842 to 1847, Mitjana reported "an excavation in the centre of the cave under a large stone, where the remains of bodies are believed to lie, and finding nothing...", referring to the shaft that can be seen today, which led Mitjana to the belief Menga was not a tomb.
A few years later in 1852 Lady Louisa Tennyson, warned of the shaft: "it is still open, five feet wide and forty feet deep, and the earth loose and sloping at the mouth, an unwary visitor could hardly escape being precipitated into it." The shaft that you can see today was fully excavated by Francisco Carrion of Granada University in 2005. It is not clear if this shaft is original from the Rafael de Mitjana 1847 excavation.
Other 19th century historical references are Baron of Bonstetten (1865), Lord Talbot of Malahide (1870), James Fergusson (1872), Émile Cartailhac (1886) and Henri and Louis Siret (1887). French author Jean d' Estienne (1878) described them as "the most beautiful and perfect of all known dolmens".
Discovery of Dolmen Viera in the 20th Century
References to another 'cave' existed, stating that it was inaccessible. Sometime between 1903 and 1905, brothers Antonio and José Viera, who worked as gardeners for the town council, 'discovered' the Cueva Chica (small cave) that now bears their name. Their explorations led them to discover a third dolmen at a site then known as Cerrillo Blanco (white hillock), very close to the old sugar factory, El Romeral. The brothers financed the excavations personally.
Megalithic - Structures made of large interlocking stones without the use of mortar or the period of prehistory characterized by these constructions.
Dolmen - a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb
Tumulus - a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves, also known as a barrow.
Tholos or Tholoi - also known as a beehive tomb; a burial structure characterized by a false dome or corbel created by placing progressively smaller bricks or stones on top. This avoids the need for an arch and is successful if the ground outside is built up as a counterbalance.
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2 Jan - 31 Mar: Tue to Sat 09.00 to 17.30, Sun & Hols 09.00 to 15.30.
1 Apr - 31 May: Tue to Sat 09.00 to 19.30, Sun & Hols 09.00 to 15.30.
1 Jun - 15 Sep: Tue to Sun 09.00 to 15.30.
16 Sep - 31 Mar: Tue to Sat 09.00 to 17.30, Sun & Hols 09.00 to 15.30.
Closed Mondays (but open if Monday or Tuesday is a holiday) and 1 Jan, 6 Jan, 1 May, 24 Dec, 25 Dec, 31 Dec.
Reception Centre 952 71 22 06
Reservations for guided tours 952 71 22 08
The Menga and Viera Dolmens are easy to find, on the A-354 at the entrance to Antequera when arriving from Malaga. There are modern visitor facilities with car parking and a reception centre. El Romeral Dolmen is located on the north side of the railway line, which you must now cross by bridge on the new MA-232 slip road. The site is located in an industrial area and the access roads are in poor condition. As part of the conditions for the inscription to the UNESCO world heritage list this access is to be improved.
The number 1 Urban Bus passes the entrance to the Menga and Viera site and the last stop on the route, the hospital, is the closest stop to the El Romeral Site.
Carretera de Malaga km 5 (El Romeral is Carretera A-7283 / MA-232)