Tourist Non Residents
EU citizens are allowed to use their home country drivers' licenses whilst a tourist in Spain.
If you are living in Spain and use your home country drivers' licenses you may be asked to document your absence from Spain in the last six months or face a fine of 300 euros.
If you are driving a vehicle you own on Spanish registration you must also carry some form of Spanish language license. This can be an International driving permit or an official translation of your home country drivers' license or a "Certificado de Equivalencia" prepared by Spain's Royal Automobile Club - RACE.
ResidentsOnce you become a resident in Spain you must have a Spanish Driving License.
A few countries have a reciprocal agreement with Spain to exchange license. If this is the case you follow the same procedure as a EU citizen.
Many others such as United States, Canada, Switzerland, Australia drivers are required to start at the beginning, join a driving school and take a driving test - just like any Spaniard except at the end of each class unlike the other students you will probably get in your car and drive away!